Return Protocol

Proof of Stake

PoS chains (including Ethereum post-merge) are also calculated using a bottom-up approach:
Energy Consumption: Each PoS chain lists validator node requirements – both minimum and recommended. Return Protocol finds the estimated average power draw of the recommended system, the number of validators currently (and historically) in use and multiplies these factors together to produce the average estimated daily power draw of the blockchain.
Daily Energy Consumption(MWh)=Daily MinersAverage Power Draw(W)1,000,000W\textrm{Daily Energy Consumption} (MWh)=\textrm{Daily Miners} *\frac{\textrm{Average Power Draw} (W)}{1,000,000 W}
Total Energy Consumption(MWh)=Daily Energy Consumption(MWh)\textrm{Total Energy Consumption}(MWh)=\sum\textrm{Daily Energy Consumption}(MWh)
Node Geolocation: Unlike Ethereum and Bitcoin, many PoS blockchains do not track, provide, or store historical node geolocation data (although some do). This decision may be due to privacy concerns, a lack of decentralization, or may simply not be a priority for the development team. In any case, Return Protocol uses any information that is readily available to determine which GEFs apply.
Daily Emissions(tCO2e)=Daily Energy Consumption(MWh)Daily Weighted GEF\textrm{Daily Emissions}(tCO_2e)=\textrm{Daily Energy Consumption}(MWh)*\textrm{Daily Weighted GEF}
Total Emissions(tCO2e)=Daily Emissions(tCO2e)\textrm{Total Emissions}(tCO_2e)=\sum\textrm{Daily Emissions}(tCO_2e)
Emission per Transaction: Just like with Bitcoin and Ethereum, the estimated daily carbon emissions are divided by the total transactions that have occurred on the equivalent day. The result represents estimated carbon intensity per transaction (Tx/tCO2e). To calculate a user’s individual on-chain carbon footprint, the Tx/tCO2e is multiplied by the quantity of transactions the user made on the equivalent day. The process repeats for all days the user made transactions on the relevant blockchain. The products are summed to calculate the user’s total lifetime carbon footprint.
Daily Emissions per Transaction=Daily Carbon Emissions(tCO2e)Daily Transactions\textrm{Daily Emissions per Transaction}=\frac{\textrm{Daily Carbon Emissions} (tCO_2e)}{\textrm{Daily Transactions}}
Total User Emissions(tCO2e)=Daily Emissions per Transaction(tCO2e)\textrm{Total User Emissions}(tCO_2e)=\sum\textrm{Daily Emissions per Transaction}(tCO_2e)
Note: There is a massive difference in energy/carbon intensity between PoS chains and PoW chains. A user who exclusively transacts on PoW chains will have a carbon footprint measured in tons or kilograms, while someone who only uses PoS chains will measure their emissions in grams.